The EU has introduced a set of rules of private international law for contractual and non-contractual civil and commercial obligations. “Non-contractual obligations” may include unauthorized claims, such as negligence, misrepresentation and pre-contract deception, or claims relating to restitution or unjust enrichment. As a result, parties who conduct cross-border transactions with a number of counterparties may risk the possibility that an act committed in a country, which causes damage in a number of jurisdictions, will result in several claims subject to a variety of applicable laws, resulting in complexity and litigation costs. Another risk is that, to the extent that the new regulation has a `universal application`, it is possible that the applicable law is the law of a non-EU Member State, for example. B British courts could apply Nigerian law to non-contractual litigation if the harm is suffered in Nigeria. As a result, companies may find that they have breached non-contractual obligations that do not exist in their home countries. So we go with the basics of the law of obligations in the Russian Federation. And now we`re talking about non-contractual obligations. When we talk about non-contractual obligations, it is necessary to understand that we do not have a treaty here.
Our relationship is therefore not contractual, but governed by law. This is the special chapter of the Civil Code on non-contractual obligations. And we`ll talk about a misdemeanor. The harm involves obligations for damage, obligations for damage. When we talk about an illegal act to identify the illegal act, the stagnant ideas must be at the same time. First, it must be undue measures or acts. What does that mean? That means it is not necessarily illegal. This may be negligence. For example, you drink water from a glass bottle and you are on the 10th floor of the building and you decide when you have finished the bottle just to throw the bottle out the window.
What does that mean? This means that you have taken inappropriate action. That`s an inappropriate reaction. You should understand that later, you may be damaging someone or something, but you have not identified them yet. You threw the bottle out the window, even though you had to identify it. Second, the error must be present. When we talk about mistakes. So you threw the bottle out the window. It`s probably negligence. So you didn`t think you`d be hurting someone, but you should think about it. If we are talking about intent, so intense, you deliberately throw the bottle out the window. For example, your neighbour puts his back near your window and you only decide, because of the social reach, that you don`t like my back. So you threw that bottle by bottle, it`s intentional.
What is important in terms of errors must be present. So if something is done without fail, a person is not responsible. So, for example, you buy in a supermarket, and not intentionally, no negligence, just occasionally hatch you and you break the place where 50 bottles of cognac are placed. So there is damage to the shop, but it`s not the fault. In this case, you are not responsible, because it is not a mistake. So, then, what is necessary to be present? Real damage. So, real damage, you threw the bottle, so that my back is broken, my back is damaged and the damage is a direct consequence of the act. So there are back problems. What for? Because of your unwarranted action, because you threw the bottle out of the wind. So just in case all these bad situations are available with a great fight turd. Of course, there are exclusions. Now let`s talk about exclusions.