Trade takes place at the interface of domestic, economic and external policy and maintains close relations with international finance. Below I organize my reflections on trade in the 1990s around these poles, without losing, I hope, the complexity of the interactions between them. I would also like to briefly discuss the trade policy process of the 1990s, which reflects the complex nature of the business to a extent that has not been achieved before. It is more difficult to see evidence that congressional trade policy changed significantly in the 1990s or that partisanship has increased. If so, political party politics may have weakened slightly, as more moderate Democrats voted in favor of trade and more Republicans voted against trade for ideological or electoral reasons. For example, in 1998, 42% of House Republicans voted for steel quotas and 26 percent against China`s PNTR in 2000. The Doha Round would have been the world`s largest trade agreement if the United States and the EU had agreed on a reduction in their agricultural subsidies. As a result of its failure, China has gained ground on the world`s economic front through cost-effective bilateral agreements with countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. In the end, the Clinton administration was able to advance the major economic and security interests of the United States on several fronts: in the Western Hemisphere, in East Asia and, to some extent, with Africa. Relations with Japan have improved over time, with the relative economic positions of the United States and Japan having changed dramatically and the government has changed course.
The Clinton administration can also be given significant international leadership on systemic issues and has contributed to strengthening the multilateral trading system and promoting international financial stabilization. But the government also ended in some notable failures, leaving its successor with a controversial relationship with the EU and leaving doubts abroad about America`s ability to demonstrate the political will to continue to play a leading role in international trade. The United States has free trade agreements with 20 countries. These free trade agreements are based on the WTO agreement, with broader and stronger disciplines than those of the WTO. Many of our free trade agreements are bilateral agreements between two governments. But some, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Dominican Republic-Central America-U.S. Free Trade Agreement, are multilateral agreements between several parties. A trade agreement (also known as a trade pact) is a large-scale tax, customs and trade agreement, which often includes investment guarantees. It exists when two or more countries agree on conditions that help them trade with each other.
The most frequent trade agreements are preferential and free trade regimes to reduce (or remove) tariffs, quotas and other trade restrictions imposed on intermediaries. The United States is a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Marrakesh Agreement establishing the World Trade Organization (WTO) contains rules for trade among the 154 members of the WTO. The United States and other WTO members are currently participating in the WTO negotiations on development in Doha and a strong and open Doha agreement on both goods and services would go a long way in managing the global economic crisis and restoring the role of trade in promoting economic growth and development. Three things are remarkable because they relate to the interaction between economic and international foreign policy. First, while it is generally accepted that the United States played a key role in the financial stabilization of Asia, the foreign perception of the role of the United States has been affected by a highly partisan debate about the U.S. financial contribution to the IMF and the inability of the United States to promise financing to Thailand, an ally of the treaty, because of the restrictions imposed by the