American historian Gordon S. Wood, meanwhile, described how monarchies had different advantages. The splendor and circumstances surrounding monarchies cultivated the feeling that rulers were entitled to the obedience of citizens and that they maintained order by their mere presence. In contrast, the rulers of a republic were servants of public opinion, so there could be no continuous coercion on their part. The laws had to be respected for reasons of conscience, instead of being afraid of the wrath of the sovereign. In a monarchy, people could be held back by force to give up their own interests in favor of their government. But in a republic, people must be persuaded to submit their own interests to the government, and this voluntary submission formed the eighteenth-century idea of bourgeois virtue.